Whether the process of moving across international borders or within the state. It is the movement
of population transfer, Include any type of movements of individuals whatever the length, composition or causes
include the migration of refugees.
Illegal or Irregular MigrationMigration outside the regulatory standards of the sending state or a state of transit or receiving state of migrants. From the perspective of the receiving state, they include entry, residence or work illegally
in the country. From the point of view of the sending state it includes the violation of regulations and laws
in cases such as the person to cross the international border without a valid passport or travel documents or
any completed administrative conditions to leave the country. However, the term more linked to cases of smuggling
of migrants illegally.
Irregular/Illegal MigrantIt is a person who enters the country illegally or after the expiration date of the visa and as a
result he lacks the legal position of the transit or receiving country. The term also applies to migrants who break
the acceptance of the country or any other person not authorized to remain in the host state rules. According to
the protocol by the United Nations to combat the smuggling of migrants by land,sea and air, and the law of
Egypt to combat illegal migration, the migrant is not criminally or civilly responsible for the crime.
SmugglingIt is an action, in order to obtain, directly or indirectly, financial
benefits, or other material to the illegal entry of a person to a country where he is not
a citizen or a permanent resident, according to the protocol of the United Nations to
combat the smuggling of migrants by land, sea and air.
Smuggler (of People)Is the intermediary who works on the transfer of migrants, according to
the agreement between them for the sake of benefit from transferring them across the
state’s borders illegally. It may be an individual or member of a smuggling group.
Organized Criminal GroupIs a structured group, composed of three or more persons, existing
for a period of time and acting with the aim of committing one or more serious
internationally crimes, in order to obtain, directly or indirectly, a financial or other
material benefit It includes smuggling groups.
Transnational CrimeAccording to the United Nations Convention Against Organized Transnational
Crime, the crime is considered transnational if a) committed in more than one State; (b) committed in one state but a substantial part of its preparation, planning, directing or supervising them in another state; ( c) committed in one state, but involves organized criminal group which engaged in criminal activities in more than one state criminal group; (d) committed in one state, but has substantial
effects in another state. It is applied mostly on the crime of smuggling of migrants
Asylum SeekersThey are people seeking the state to admit them as refugees and are
awaiting a decision on their applications to be considered as refugees under
international and national documents. In the case of a rejection of their applications,
they have to leave the country immediately and they may be expelled. As for any stranger
to which this case may be irregular, unless granted permission to stay on humanitarian
grounds or any other basis.
Human Trafficking


According to the Egyptian law to combat human trafficking No. 64 for the
year 2010, it includes dealing in any way in the natural person, including the sale or
purchase, or the promise of them, use or transport or delivery or shelter or reception or
receipt, whether within the country or across national borders – if it is done by the use
of force or violence or the threat of them, or by abduction, fraud, deception, or abuse of
power, or the exploitation of the vulnerable situation or need, or the promise of giving or
receiving or benefits payments in exchange for a person’s permission on the trafficking of
another person has control of it – and all – if the dealing is for the aim of exploitation
whatever the form, for example exploitation in prostitution and other forms of sexual
exploitation, and the exploitation of children in it and pornography or forced labor or
services, slavery or similar to slavery or slavery practices, or begging, or the removal
of organs or human tissue , or part of it. And it exposed many of the illegal migrants of
various types of human trafficking.
DetentionRestrict the freedom of movement usually through mandatory imprison which
being done by the government to a certain individual. There are two types of detention:
criminal detention, a punishment for the crime committed, and administrative detention
which include administrative action such as deportation or administrative expulsion,
which is subjected to illegal migrants because they violated laws and migration regulations,
which are not considered as a crime.
DeportationIt is the case where the state exercises its sovereignty in the deportation
of aliens (foreigners), such as illegal migrants from its territory to another place or origin
country after approval rejection or termination of the stay permit.
RepatriationIs the return of illegal migrant or refugee to the origin country under
international conventions and agreements. And the repatriation requires the commitment from
the detaining authority and the origin country’s duty to receive its citizens.
ReadmissionIs the state’s decision to accept the re-entry of an individual (of the same
citizenship, citizenship of a third country or a stateless person enters or resides in another
country illegally.
Voluntary Return /Voluntary RepatriationMigrant’s subsidized or independent return to the origin, transit or any other
third country according to the person’s request and the freedom of opinion.
Rescue at SeaIt is a duty to rescue those in distress at sea, and this should be supported
by both the Convention and conventional international law. A state may prohibit individuals
who have been rescued from entering its territory and ask the captain of the boat to take them
away from its territory or allow them entering the territory based on acceptable guarantees
with respect to resettlement, care and maintenance which is granted from another state or by
international organizations.
Country of Origin/ Sending CountryThe exporting country that migrants come out of it, whether legally or illegally.
Country of TransitAny country that migrant can pass through it during his journey from the
origin country to the destination country. The duration of residence for migrants may be
shorter or longer in the State of transit. This residence also illegal.
Country of Destination/ Receiving CountryIs a state that is intended to masses of migratory flows, whether migrating
legally or illegally. In the case of the return or repatriation, State of origin or
destination becomes responsible for migrants or refugees’ return.
Temporary Migrant Workersskilled or semi-skilled or non-coaches workers who stay in the receiving
country for limited periods as may be specified in the work contract with the employee or
service contract with the employee alone or a service contract with a specific project.
They also called migrant workers on a contractual basis. It is noteworthy that Egypt has
signed several agreements with some European countries such as Italy to provide a number
of temporary job opportunities for Egyptians.