What is illegal migration?

Migration outside the regulatory standards of the sending state or a state of transit or receiving state of migrants. From the perspective of the receiving state, it includes entry, residence or work illegally in the country. From the point of view of the sending state, it includes the violation of regulations and laws in cases such as the person to cross the international border without a valid passport or travel documents or any completed administrative conditions to leave the country. However, the term is more linked to cases of smuggling of migrants illegally.

What is safe migration?

The movement of a person from his or her usual place of residence to a new place of residence, in keeping with the laws and regulations governing exit of the country of origin and travel, transit and entry into the destination or host country (Inhured International Organization).

What is the country of origin?

The exporting country where migrants come out of it, whether legally or illegally.

What is the country of transit?

Any country where migrants can pass through during their journey from the origin country to the destination country. The duration of residence for migrants may be shorter or longer in the State of transit. This residence may also be illegal.

What is the country of destination?

Is a state that is intended to masses of migratory flows, whether migrating legally or illegally. In the case of the return or repatriation, State of origin or destination becomes responsible for migrants or refugees’ return.

How did the convention on the right of the child define unaccompanied migrant children (UMCs)?

Unaccompanied migrant children, as defined in Article 1 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child of 20 November 1989 (CRC), are children who have been separated from both parents and other relatives and are not being cared for by an adult who, by law or custom, is responsible for doing so. A child is a person below the age of 18 years

What are the top 11 origin governorates that boosting the largest number of illegal migrants?

A recent research study conducted by the National Center for Sociological and Criminological Research among Egyptian youth who wish to leave Egypt and illegally migrate to another country identified the 11 governorates that boast the largest number of illegal migrant émigrés. They are: Sharkia, Dakahleya,Qalyoubia, Monufia, Gharbeya, Behera, Kafr El-Sheikh, Fayoum, Assiut, Luxor and Minya.

What are the most attractive destination countries?

Although statistics show that many illegal migrants from Egypt land in Greece and Malta, the destination of choice for most migrants is Italy. This is due to:

  • Italy’s economy, which has fared better than those of Malta and Greece.
  • Italy’s large informal sector provides greater job potential for skilled and unskilled labor performed by migrants.
  • There are several strong networks and communities of Egyptian immigrants in cities such as Milan that are actively working to encourage, sponsor and support family members, friends or people from their villages seeking work and living opportunities in Italy.
  • The possibility of acquiring Italian citizenship is the main reason why children, or more preciously their parents, target Italy. The most popular destinations are Sicily and Milan.

What are the risks that surround illegal migration in Italy?

The risks and dangers of illegal migration are the same for both adults and children including the difficult journey from their country of origin. The negative impact on children, however, is often more severe since they are inherently vulnerable.
Risks in Italy:
Once they arrive, UMCs from Egypt are targets for exploitation for a number of reasons listed below, especially if they escape the migrant centers.

  • Often these children do not know their rights or how they are protected under Italian law. The only information available to them is provided by their fellow countrymen. Often they will have to pay adults to accompany them to social services appointments, police stations or court. They may also need to do so in order to get an appointed guardian. Sometimes youth can choose a guardian that will exploit them.
  • Unaccompanied migrant children are also at particular risk of exploitation due to the cost of the migratory journey. This means they may be exploited in poor or inhumane working conditions to pay back their smugglers or sponsors.
  • They could also be pressed into other human trafficking activities including prostitution, drug dealing, indentured servitude/slavery or the involuntary removal of organs.

What does “Trafficking in Persons” mean?

According to the Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime, “Trafficking in persons” shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.
Trafficking in persons” is intended to include a range of cases where human beings are exploited by organized crime groups, where there is an element of duress involved and a transnational aspect, such as the movement of people across borders or their exploitation within a country by a transnational organized crime group.
The process of trafficking takes place in three steps: Recruitment, Transportation & Exploitation of a person. It may also include a form of irregular migration, an organized crime, and a violation of human rights.
Victims of trafficking frequently suffer rape, torture, debt bondage, as well as, other forms of physical, sexual and psychological violence.

What are the common forms of Trafficking in Persons?

Labour exploitation (forced labour), Domestic servitude, all forms of sexual and commercial exploitation of human beings, Slavery and its similar practices (debt bondage, forced and underage marriage), forced organized begging, kidnap and sale of children, and trafficking in human organs.

Differences from smuggling of migrants:

  • There are similarities and differences between smuggling of migrants and trafficking in persons. Both are profitable business involving human beings and conducted by organized organizations, however, there are differences:
  • People can be trafficked within a country (domestic/internal trafficking) or across borders (international trafficking), while smuggling of migrants can only take place across borders.
  • Trafficking in persons is a crime against humanity, while smuggling of migrants is a crime against the state.
  • Continuity of exploitation: The relation between the smuggled migrant and the smuggler ends after the process of crossing the international borders. In the case of trafficking in persons, the relation between the trafficker and the trafficked person doesn’t end. Victims are forced or deceived. The intention of trafficker to exploit them.
  • Trafficking in Person cases rarely include advanced payment, while the advances payment is a must in case of smuggling of migrants.
  • Despite the clear distinction, a case of migrant smuggling can become a case of trafficking in persons. Smuggled migrants who are exploited at any stage of the process may become victims of human trafficking.

How many people have we lost crossing the Mediterranean Sea?

At least 880 people appear to have died over the past week as their vessels capsized in the Mediterranean, bringing the total fatalities along the dangerous crossing route to 2,510 so far this year, The UN refugee agency said that comparatively, some 1,855 died in the crossing in the same period in 2015 and 57 in the first five months of 2014. So far this year, 203,981 people have made the journey to the Mediterranean. “The odds of being among the dead are currently one in 81,” said William Spindler, spokesperson for the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR).

Do the perceived benefits outweigh the definite risks?

The decision of illegal migration comes with a lot of risks for both you and your child. As a child who is too young for work, no skills and no source of income to survive, a life of drug dealing, human trafficking for the purposes of forced labor or sexual exploitation, dealing in drugs and even organ removal becomes your child’s inevitable fate. Moreover, as a parent who knowingly allows his child’s safety to be jeopardized, you could face jail time and financial fines.

Is it worth sacrificing your child?

There is no pot of gold at the other side of the sea awaiting your child to simply find it. The success stories of wealth are usually exaggerated in numbers by smugglers only to add to its appeal. The truth is that the biggest beneficiaries of your child’s illegal migration are the smugglers and brokers that earn large sums of money to lure as many unaccompanied children as possible. And as an illegal migrant with none of the required skills to find a proper job, it is most likely that your child will either wind up unemployed or earn a small salary and most definitely working illegally.

How can a fictional dream turn into a deadly trip?

The path of illegal migrants is fraught with risks and dangers from the moment they begin on their journey. The issues do not necessarily end once migrants arrive at their destination.

The Deadly Trip:

  1. Before they leave, migrants are housed by smugglers in large groups for several days in transit governorates such as Damietta, Alexandria or Behera. The conditions are poor, with migrants living with little access to fresh water, food or air. The migrants are not allowed to talk, make noise or contact their families since they are being held in secret locations away from the eyes of authorities.
  2. Under the cover of darkness, migrants are forced to board vehicles for hours that take them to remote spots along the Mediterranean coast.
  3. If the vehicles are not stopped by authorities or coast guards, the migrants must then begin their trek by sea. They are forced to board small fishing boats or dinghies that are not necessarily seaworthy or safe and are often dangerously overcrowded. Sometimes migrants have to swim to reach their boat. In addition, migrants have reported being injured while trying to board due to darkness and engine hazards…See More

What is the role of NCCPIM in combating illegal migration?

The Committee is led by NCCPIM Chairperson, Ambassador NaelaGabr, in cooperation with a team of local advisers and technical experts. NCCPIM has several working groups, formed of representatives of the ministries and governmental Organizations that are members of the committee. Working groups include: Legal Affairs, Awareness and Documentation. Together, they oversee the design and implementation of the below initiatives:
Awareness Raising
The Documentation
Bilateral, Regional and International Cooperation
The Legislation

Will the new law simply lead to less illegal migration?

  • Article (2) illustrates that illegal migrants are not responsible for any civil or criminal liability as they considered as victims of the smuggling crime.
  • Concerning unaccompanied migrant children, Article (3) illustrates that the National Council for Childhood and Motherhood will serve as the legal representative for children that there is no evidence with their families or legal representation.
  • Articles from (5) to (14) Describe in detail the sanctions imposed on smuggling acts, which include prison and fines of not less than 50,000 Egyptian pounds and more than 500,000 Egyptian pounds based on the crime strength. The law also provides a number of sanctions against terrorist groups engaged in smuggling migrants or human trafficking activities for gains, as can pursue those groups that help or incite the implementation of this practice.

Do you know that there are other options?

Sometimes it’s hard to look on the bright side when life doesn’t give you a winning hand, but some have been dealt worse and still came out winners. The war in Syria has brought thousands of refugees to Egypt who have managed to start off small businesses that are now growing. They’ve created a reputation for themselves as being hardworking and honest and now they are reaping the benefits. You too can do the same. Instead of wasting money to help smugglers get richer, you can invest it in your own future.

How can you invest in your future?

There are several ways to get the financing you need if you don’t have the money to start with such as Mashrou3ak and the social fund for development which both offer loans for small startups. The social fund also engages potential business owners to further motivate them by providing professional lectures, training on how to be an entrepreneur, project ideas as well as marketing support. There are also other alternatives listed below.
Build your future with your hands
National Employment Pact (NEP)
Start your own personal enterprise and achieve your dream!